Confucianism. Short for “if and only if”. 1 a : of or relating to philosophers or philosophy. Paradox: a statement or sentiment that is seemingly contradictory or opposed to common sense, and yet is perhaps true in fact, or a statement that is actually self-contradictory (and therefore false) even though it appears true. [4] First, a stipulative definition should not enable us to establishessentially new claims—call this the Conservativenesscriterion. 187 0 obj <> endobj "Amor Fati: The Formula for Human Greatness", association, la vie associative and lifelong learning, Metaphysics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy), The Ism Book: A Field Guide to Philosophy, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Glossary_of_philosophy&oldid=987300602, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 6 November 2020, at 04:01. b : based on philosophy. GLOSSARY OF PHILOSOPHICAL TERMS. Epistemology: The study of belief, truth, knowledge, and rationality. h���R�Hǟ`ߡ/w+�=�n}VM� The question, What is art?, is an aesthetical one. A fortiori (“Hence still more strongly”). 225 0 obj <>stream Conscience. This glossary of philosophy is a list of definitions of terms and concepts relevant to philosophy and related disciplines, including logic, ethics, and theology.[1][2]. It is a plausible requirement on any answer to these questions thattwo criteria be respected. 0 Also called direct realism and common sense realism. Consequentialism. Over the past century, these visions and values have come to be loosely grouped together under the name of 'modernism'" (Berman 1988, 16). Nonetheless, th… pacifism In ethics or politics, an opposition to war or violence. GLOSSARY OF PHILOSOPHICAL TERMS. The founding principle of philosophy is perhaps the astonishment, source of the questions. These world-historical processes have nourished an amazing variety of visions and ideas that aim to make men and women the subjects as well as the objects of modernization, to give them the power to change the world that is changing them, to make their way through the maelstrom and make it their own. Common Philosophical Terms. Constructivism. Aesthetics: The study of beauty, ugliness, and maybe even the sublime. A priori / a posteriori. Critical Thinking. endstream endobj 188 0 obj <> endobj 189 0 obj <> endobj 190 0 obj <>stream Then, philosophy related … pancritical rationalism A sub-concept of critical rationalism, it argues that every tenant of science or commonly held truth should be questioned regardless of an authority figure's justification or assurance that it is true. 203 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<498A033CFE0BCE4B9AA063B53998F6FE>]/Index[187 39]/Info 186 0 R/Length 87/Prev 192746/Root 188 0 R/Size 226/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream Some have held, for example, that the inten- tional torturing or killing of an innocent person is morally impermissible no matter what bad con- sequences could be prevented by … endstream endobj startxref Can range from advocacy of peaceful solutions to problems, to a stance where all violence or force is considered morally wrong. C. Causality. List of definitions of terms and concepts commonly used in philosophy. "In the twentieth century, the social processes that bring this maelstrom into being, and keep it in a state of perpetual becoming, have come to be called 'modernization'. Some basic terms in philosophy include: Philosophy: Love of wisdom. A proposition is knowable a priori iff one could be justified in believing it on the basis of reason alone. Contingency. Also called explicit agnosticism and positive agnosticism. %PDF-1.6 %���� We should not be able to establish, by means of a merestipulation, new things about, for example, the moon. Etymologically, philosophy means love of wisdom. Also called logical empiricism, rational empiricism, and neo-positivism. This is a concise guide to technical terms and personal names often encountered in the study of philosophy. 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Before being a field of study, it is above all a way of seeing the world, of questioning it. It is true thatunless this criterion is made precise, it is subject to trivialcounterexamples, for the introduction of a definition materiallyaffects some facts. 2 : characterized by the attitude of a philosopher specifically : calm or unflinching in the face of trouble, … z. absolutismThe view that there are some types of action that are strictly prohibited by morality, no matter what the specific facts are in a particular case. h�bbd``b`�$���a �!$v �b !��m��@� �� $� O�X8�7 �W�����2�����F�7 5a: Definition of philosophical. Also called the descriptivist theory of names. Cognitive Bias. %%EOF Also called Restitution creationism or Ruin-Reconstruction. What you will find here naturally reflects my own philosophical interests and convictions, but everything is meant to be clear, accurate, and fair, a reliable source of information on Western philosophy for a broad audience. pandeism A type of deism that combines the deistic belief in a rationally determined, non-intervening Go… Iff. Ontology: the study of conceptions of reality, existence and the nature of being. Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Volume 3, 1967, Macmillan, Inc. What is it (that is, whatever it is that there is) like? Belief, truth, knowledge, and rationality maybe even the sublime new claims—call this the Conservativenesscriterion a,. Is considered morally wrong of or relating to philosophers or philosophy the nature of.. Merestipulation, new things about, for example, the moon type of deism that combines deistic. Some basic terms in philosophy include: philosophy: Love of wisdom before being a field of study it! 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