Webster, Daniel L., Susan Tobey Evans, and William T. Sanders 1992 Out of the Past: An Introduction to Archaeology. Haeberlin, Herman K. 1919 Types of Ceramic Art in the Valley of Mexico. Ameri- can Antiquity 26(1):99. Stratigraphic excavation became a standard part of all archaeological study in the 1920s. American Antiquity 50(2):249-260. Modern excavation techniques are based on stratigraphic principles. 1942 George Andrew Reisner. 1960a, b) or at least the first significant stratigraphic excavations (Givens, 1996; Willey, 1953; Willey and Sabloff, 1974). Berkeley. 1907 The Emeryville Shellmound. Luce, Stephen B. Samuel E. Morison, ed. Pp. Phillips Academy (Andover). However, our research indicates that it was unlikely that Nelson understood the import of Uhle's California shellmound excavations. Pp.275-283. 1916a The Application of Statistical Methods to the Data on the Trenton Argillite Culture. 1986 Origins of Archaeological Stratigraphy in Latin Amer- ica: A Critical Review. American Museum Journal 17(2): 100-101. So Boas's direct influence was not limited to Gamio. Reiss and Stubel (1880, 1:i) advocated stylistic seriation of grave goods to define prehistoric cultures. In the early tests the face was laid off arbitrarily in 1 foot or 18 inch layers; but as it was found that this method often resulted in the splitting of strata, the later tests were not laid out beforehand and a new bag was started whenever there was encountered a zone of sand or ash or when there appeared a sherd differ- ent in type from those of above. American Anthropo- logical Association, Memoir 61. Berkeley. 27. Almost immediately upon his return from Castillo in the fall of 1913, Nelson went back to work at Galisteo (Anonymous 19 13c:328). This purely archaeologi- cal indication of permanence and stability is in large measure corroborated by the evidence of the historic tribes them- selves. Boas writes of it, "I wish to express here my thanks to M. Jorge Engerrand for giving us most valuable aid in the geological interpretation of the strata investigated" (Boas 1912:176). 1-124. Thisrevolution in method involved two components: the recognition that archaeological strata were present in North American sites and that appropriate recovery of data should involve excavation by such units.The impor- tance of human associations with geological strata in North America was recognized during the latter part of the 19th century. The International School was suspended late in 1914 because of revolutionary events in Mexico and never reopened. If Pepper used layers as excavation units, he failed to employ them in his published analyses (1905, 1909, 1920), and he was not effective in communicating his technique to others. American Anthropologist 16(3):447-505. Read Online (Free) relies on page scans, which are not currently available to screen readers. 46. In contrast to Gamio's archaeological excavations before he studied under Boas, his work in 191 1 displays a "remark- able shift in technique" (Bernal1980:164), making it clear that Gamio now was employing technique learned under Boas's tutelage (Boas 1912,1915; Gamio 1912,1959). Dixon, in reviewing the work of Dall, Smith, and Uhle and others working in the California, Washington, British Columbia, and Alaska shellmounds failed to find the macroevolutionary changes that the archaeological paradigm then current demanded. This trench enabled Dall "to distinguish between the dif- ferent strata and their contentsn (1877:47). London. Thus in his excavation of the Ellis Landing shellmound in 1907, he supervised horse teams dredging out 2,500 cubic yards in two weeks (1910:373), an average of 250 cubic yards per working day. David J. Meltzer and Robert C. Dunnell, eds. Proceedings of the 1974 American Ethnological Society. Holmes's interpretation is informed by the stratigraphy that he observed in the cut, but there is no evidence that Holmes employed strati- graphc excavation.

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