How did you explain your circumstances to yourself? You can request a copy of the attributional style questionnaire here. Thank you all. Developed as a test to investigate and measure individual differences in habitual explanatory tendencies, a composite explanatory style score is formed by combining scores from the three dimensions (Peterson et al., 1993). optimistic explanatory style. 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B. When placed in a situation where there is no control over the outcome, the animals were conditioned to expect that future attempts to negate the shocks would be futile and therefore gave up trying. Someone with an internal explanatory style might say, "Wow, I wasn't paying attention" while a person with an external explanatory style would say, "That person came out of nowhere!" Before you read on, we thought you might like to download our 3 Positive Psychology Exercises for free. Seligman (Eds.). Alex still expects future proposals to be successful because the proposal failed due to their temporary problem and not his lack of ability. (1986). These science-based exercises will explore fundamental aspects of positive psychology including strengths, values, and self-compassion, and will give you the tools to enhance the wellbeing of your clients, students, or employees. credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. (1989). One’s characteristic response to poor health may mediate this relationship. Buchanan & Seligman (1995) suggested that it is particularly related to the internality dimension of explanatory styles as they are concerned with the source of outcomes (i.e. An investigation into post-transplant patients suggested that quality of life can be significantly affected by personality characteristics such as optimism. Michelle the optimist and Susan the pessimist complete an assignment for school: Michelle the optimist receives an ‘A’ from her teacher. In most elite sports the number one rankings are determined by points awarded for high placings over the year. Paul has a pessimistic explanatory style, and Olivia has an optimistic explanatory style. 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